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Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder 

For this Assignment, you will pretend that you are a contributing writer to a health blog. You are tasked with explaining important information about an assigned mental health disorder in language appropriate for child/adolescent patients and/or their caregivers. 



To Prepare



  • Research signs and symptoms for Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder. pharmacological treatments, nonpharmacological treatments, and appropriate community resources and referrals.


The Assignment


In a 300- to 500-word blog post written for a patient and/or caregiver audience,

explain signs and symptoms for Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder.  

Pharmacological treatments, nonpharmacological treatments, and appropriate community resources and referrals.

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Premenstrual Dysphoric disorder


Signs and Symptoms

♦ Anger.                                                           ♦ Anxiety.

♦ Persistent irritability.                                     ♦ Appetite changes.

♦ Sadness or feeling of worthlessness.             ♦ Joint/muscle pain.

♦ Difficulty concentrating.                               ♦ Hot flashes.

♦ Fatigue.                                                           ♦ Breast tenderness or swelling/headaches.


There are no specific tests for PMDD but a health provider can diagnose the condition if (Bhatia & Bhatia, 2002):

  • You have no physical or psychiatric disorders like depression or bipolar.

  • There are at least five PMDD symptoms with a significant impact on your daily functioning including social relationships.  

  • The symptoms start 7-10 days before getting your period.

  • The symptoms disappear shortly after the menstruation bleeding.

PMDD is chronic with a significant impact on your life. Fortunately, there are various pharmacological and non-pharmacological approaches effective for eliminating PMDD symptoms for an improved quality of life.

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Non-Pharmacological Treatments

Exercise- Exercise helps in relieving stress, tension, anxiety, and the depressive symptoms of PMDD by promoting the production of feel-good hormones in the brain. Resistance training, aerobic and stretching exercises are an effective approach for maximum gain (Yilmaz-Akyuz & Aydin-Kartal, 2019).

Relaxation- Any form of psychological disturbance like stress may worsen PMDD symptoms. Relaxation therapy helps ease the stress and anxiety associated with daily living using techniques like meditation, self-hypnosis, muscle relaxation, or biofeedback. It also relieves PMDD symptoms for increased quality of life (Bluth et al., 2015).

Dietary Changes and smoking cessation- Smoking, high calorie, fats, sugar, and high salt intake are associated with worsening psychological and behavioral symptoms in PMDD (Hashim et al., 2019). Smoking cessation, fruits, and vegetable consumption have significant benefits in reducing or alleviating PMDD symptoms.

Pharmacological Treatments

Selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors- SSRIs like Fluoxetine and escitalopram are effective in reducing PMDD symptoms for teenagers (Bhatia & Bhatia, 2002). Health providers observe the efficacy of the medication by monitoring two menstrual cycles. If there are no significant improvements, they consider alternative treatment approaches. Nonetheless, SSRIs are the most effective options for PMDD.

Hormonal therapy- Hormonal therapy using birth control pills are an effective treatment for severe PMDD symptoms. Yaz is the only FDA-approved medication for PMDD. It works by improving the physical and emotional symptoms including better interpersonal relationships and increased productivity.  

Gonadotropin-releasing hormone agonists- The approach works to stop PMDD symptoms by inhibiting the ovaries from producing estrogen and progesterone. Although it is an effective approach, it is complicated, expensive, and not approved for adolescents. It is only utilized for adults if there is no improvement with other alternatives.

Resources and Referrals

The Center for Women’s Mental Health in Massachusetts- It is a general Hospital dedicated to the evaluation and treatment of psychiatric disorders associated with reproductive functioning.

Peer support groups (Young PMD & PMDD support group) - It is an online support group forum for young people with PMDD and PME.

The following organizations provide credible and reliable information about PMDD:

National Institutes of Health


The Mayo Clinic





Bhatia, S. C., & Bhatia, S. K. (2002). Diagnosis and treatment of premenstrual dysphoric disorder. American family physician, 66(7), 1239.

Bluth, K., Gaylord, S., Nguyen, K., Bunevicius, A., & Girdler, S. (2015). Mindfulness-based stress reduction as a promising intervention for amelioration of premenstrual dysphoric disorder symptoms. Mindfulness, 6(6), 1292-1302.

 Hashim, M. S., Obaideen, A. A., Jahrami, H. A., Radwan, H., Hamad, H. J., Owais, A. A., ... & Al-Yateem, N. (2019). Premenstrual syndrome is associated with dietary and lifestyle behaviors among university students: A cross-sectional study from Sharjah, UAE. Nutrients, 11(8), 1939.

Yilmaz-Akyuz, E., & Aydin-Kartal, Y. (2019). The effect of diet and aerobic exercise on Premenstrual Syndrome: Randomized controlled trial. Revista de Nutrição, 32.

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