Reflection about Worldviews
Based on the required topic study materials, write a reflection about worldview and respond to following:
1.In 250-300 words, explain the Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care.
2.In 250-300 words, explain what scientism is and describe two of the main arguments against it.
3.In 750-1,000 words, answer each of the worldview questions according to your own personal perspective and worldview:
1.What is ultimate reality?
2.What is the nature of the universe?
3.What is a human being?
4.What is knowledge?
5.What is your basis of ethics?
6.What is the purpose of your existence?
Remember to support your reflection with the topic study materials.
While APA style is not required for the body of this assignment, solid academic writing is expected, and documentation of sources should be presented using APA formatting guidelines, which can be found in the APA Style Guide, located in the Student Success Center.
This assignment uses a rubric. Please review the rubric prior to beginning the assignment to become familiar with the expectations for successful completion.
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Reflection about Worldviews
A collaboration between the healthcare provider and the patient is the basic tenet to better patient outcomes. However, the relationship is often strained by different worldviews from either side. Precisely, the fundamental cognitive orientation of a patient is a significant contributor to their decision-making ability in health care. Alternatively, a health provider with a different world view from that of the patient may not provide the expected care standards. It necessitates that the health practitioners understand the different worldviews to define their attitudes and understand the patients for better collaboration.
Christian perspective of the nature of spirituality and ethics in contrast to the perspective of postmodern relativism within health care.
The Christian perspective about the nature of ethics and spirituality has been part of health care for a long time. It is based on the belief that God is a supreme being and the bible is his guide to spirituality (Igboin, 2015). Therefore, a Christian's worldview is solely reliant on the Bible's belief system and guidance on spirituality.
Like in health care, the purpose of spirituality for Christianity is the wholeness of the body and spirit. It not only depicts spirituality as symbolic but also theological. It explains the global use of Christian symbols in health care to point out and participate in the power of the reality in which these symbols represent. An example is an anchor in medical practice initially used during Christian persecution as a sign of their commitment to religion. In health care, the anchor means holding firm to one's values amidst ill health and is a representation of a safe place after a difficult experience- hope and resilience (Prakash & Johnny, 2015). Such spirituality depiction in health care is a representation of both perspectives of human knowledge and experience to promote patient wellness.
Post-modern relativism is different from the Christian perspective. Its distinctive characteristic is that there is no absolute truth (Potgieter & Van der Walt, 2015). The argument is that a divine being’s existence or in-existence is not a guide for moral decisions. The implication is that there is no single argument or ethical affiliation that is not fit for consideration in critical decision-making. An example is the role of health professionals to take a multi-dimensional approach in patient care through a psychosocial, spiritual, and physical approach. Such a world-view guides nurses and other health professionals that there is no monopoly for truth and every culture or spiritual affiliation is worth consideration in a multi-dimensional approach to quality patient care and better outcomes.
Scientism is the view that science is the best and only objective manner for society to derive epistemological and normative values (Hietanen et al., 2020). It came from a long history of reliance on Judeo-Christian scripture and Ancient-Greek philosophy before the 17th century (Hietanen et al., 2020). However, a new wave of learning during the late renaissance challenged ancient authority and long-held intellectual foundations to an age of scientism. The revolution introduced the then scholars to a reliance on science to master and possess nature. Over the years, however, scholars have challenged the very basic foundations and concepts behind scientism.
A major scientism argument is a dilemma in differentiating natural science from other fields- the false dilemma. The term scientism was originally from scholars with an excessive trust in the natural sciences to common parlance. Like then, opponents today believe that scientism is offensive to philosophy, theology, or any other field that is outside the natural sciences. Opponents like Boudry & Pigliucci (2017) even compare scientism to scientific imperialism. While it is argued of adding other sciences than the natural sciences into scientism, proponents state that this would mean not excluding anything from science. Instead, philosophers and theologians would also have the same authority on issues like natural scientists, and in the end, scientific projects would have no meaning. As such, the argument against scientism continues.
Another major philosophical argument against scientism is self-referential incoherence. It states that scientism’s thesis of obtaining knowledge from natural sciences is in itself a by-product of natural science. Therefore, the thesis falls short of standards that define fundamental scientific research (Hietanen et al., 2020). The inability to think and embrace scientism critically means that there is no way to prove that it is right. Consequently, there would be no way to can believe in it. It explains the continued arguments between opponents and proponents.
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Ultimate reality is something that signifies supremacy, finality, and fundamental power in all reality. My understanding of the ultimate reality is that every human being is a by-product of their environment. It means that everybody is a by-product of their environment which, in turn, largely responsible for their actions and behavior. For example, a child who grows in Muslim culture is likely to embrace polygamy compared to one who thrives in a Christian upbringing. It means that ultimate reality is about how people's experience affects reasons, decision-making abilities, and life choices.
Nature of the Universe
The universe is always under changes due to the physical laws on energy and matter. It is made up of everything in existence, those that existed, and everything that will exist. The major link to all this is the time factor. According to Albert Einstein, time is flexible, relative, and the only difference between the present and the future is an illusion (Einstein, 2006). Einstein elaborates that reality is timeless. The only significant contribution to this timelessness is creating a better illusion for the future with continued efforts towards a better environment and a healthier life. Moreover, time promotes evolution to give the population a better chance of future survival. However, it does not change the ability of time to promote extinction and eliminate weak components through disasters or direct competition. All this is an emphasis on the impact of time in shaping the population's future irrespective of the present's timelessness.
What is a human being?
According to a Christianity worldview, human beings are a complex creation by God in His image and likeness with the major role of pro-creation. Human-beings are also responsible for making complex choices to uphold their main duty to fear God and obey his commandments. In a biological account, human beings are complex by-products of evolution selectively chosen to overcome challenges in their environment. Superior selective characteristics that define human beings include conscious awareness, knowledge and reason, freedom, personal identity, and responsibility. Such higher thought process capabilities have made it possible for human beings to solve complex tasks in the environment and find new solutions to making life easier for future generations.
What is knowledge?
Knowledge is a familiarity, awareness, and understanding of people or things through experience or education. Knowledge through experience entails practice to familiarize with knowledge while education is the attendance of formal or informal arrangements to obtain theoretical knowledge. In turn, individuals are well equipped to build on their thought processes for complex task handling. An example is a nurse who attends nursing school for knowledge in patient care. Clinical experience adds to the knowledge base to handle complex patient care processes compared to a junior nurse.
What is your basis of ethics?
My moral principle comes from a deep conviction to do the right thing in all situations through personal opinion and the environmental law for right and wrong. It means that I have no moral right to engage in theft, rape, forgery, and other unlawful acts. I am also adherent to any professional ethical standards in my line of work. Adhering to the stipulated recommendations ensures that I maintain professionalism and abide by the required ethical standard. For example, I am required to keep any patient information private and confidential. Compliance ensures that I am within the ethical realm of professional practice.
What is the purpose of your existence?
Like any other human being, I have a purpose to procreate and take care of my future generations. It includes getting married, having children, and working to meet the needs of my family. I also have a professional role in contributing to a better society through patient care. Community wellness is one of the guarantees of a safer community for my generations to thrive. The major determinant for this success is ensuring my better health through healthy-directed practices like exercise and proper nutrition. Ultimately, my major duty as a Christian is to fear God and obey his commandments.
Boudry, Maarten. 2017. “Plus Ultra: Why Science Does Not Have Limits.” In Science Unlimited? The Challenges of Scientism, edited by Maarten Boudryand Massimo Pigliucci 31– 52. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.
Einstein, A. (2006). Reality is merely an illusion, albeit a very persistent one. Second nature: brain science and human knowledge, 88.
Hietanen, J., Turunen, P., Hirvonen, I., Karisto, J., Pättiniemi, I., & Saarinen, H. (2020). How Not to Criticise Scientism. Metaphilosophy, 51(4), 522-547.
Igboin, B. (2015). Spirituality and medical practice: a Christian perspective. Indian Journal of Medical Ethics, 12(4). DOI: 10.20529/IJME.2015.054.
Prakash, M., & Johnny, J. C. (2015). Things you don’t learn in medical school: Caduceus. Journal of pharmacy & bioallied sciences, 7(Suppl 1), S49. https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4439707/
Potgieter, F., & Van der Walt, J. (2015). Postmodern relativism and the challenge to overcome the" value-vacuum". Stellenbosch theological journal, 1(1), 235-254. http://www.scielo.org.za/pdf/stj/v1n1/14.pdf
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